Analysis Interpretation of the news based on evidence, including data, as well as anticipating how events might unfold based on past events. And which team is likely to benefit most from set pieces? A set piece occurs any time there is a restart of play from a foul or the ball going out of play. Typically these take the form of corner kicks, crosses from a free kick or a direct shot from a free kick, including penalties. A set piece allows the attacking team to more reliably put players into positions where they are more likely to score than during the run of play.
With players able to take up positions closer to goal, the likelihood of scoring from a set piece is more than 50 percent higher than that from a possession in the normal run of play.
Based upon data collected by American Soccer Analysis , direct shots from free kicks are scored about 7. Approximately 3 percent of corner kicks result in a goal. Taken together, it is advantageous for a team to accumulate as many set piece opportunities as possible. By excelling at set pieces, teams are effectively able to punch above their weight. At the international level, not every team has the technical ability to compete with Spain and Germany in open play, but by excelling at set pieces, the underdogs can have a fighting chance.
If their guess is correct, this may result in a saved penalty. He dived three times to the right and a fourth time to his left to save all penalties taken, securing victory for his team. A goalkeeper may also rely on knowledge of the shooter's past behaviour to inform his decision. An example of this would be by former Netherlands national team goalkeeper Hans van Breukelen , who always had a box with cards with all the information about the opponent's penalty specialist.
This approach may not always be successful; the player may intentionally switch from his favoured spot after witnessing the goalkeeper obtaining knowledge of his kicks. Most times, especially in amateur football, the goalkeeper is often forced to guess. Game theoretic research shows that strikers and goalies must randomize their strategies in precise ways to avoid having the opponent take advantage of their predictability.
The goalkeeper also may try to distract the penalty taker, as the expectation is on the penalty taker to succeed, hence more pressure on the penalty taker, making him more vulnerable to mistakes. This was because all of Chelsea's penalties went to the left.
Anelka's shot instead went to Van der Sar's right, which was saved. Liverpool goalkeeper Bruce Grobbelaar used a method of distracting the players called the "spaghetti legs" trick to help his club defeat Roma to win the European Cup. An illegal method of saving penalties is for the goalkeeper to make a quick and short jump forward just before the penalty taker connects with the ball.
This not only shuts down the angle of the shot, but also distracts the penalty taker. FIFA was less strict on the rule during that time. In more recent times, FIFA has advised all referees to strictly obey the rule book.
Similarly, a goalkeeper may also attempt to delay a penalty by cleaning his boots, asking the referee to see if the ball is placed properly and other delaying tactics. This method builds more pressure on the penalty taker, but the goalkeeper may risk punishments, most likely a yellow card. A goalkeeper can also try to distract the taker by talking to them prior to the penalty being taken.
As the Costa Rican players were preparing to take the kick, Krul told them that he ''knew where they were going to put their penalty'' in order to ''get in their heads''. Under new IFAB rule changes, if the penalty taker attempts to feint or dummy the opposing goalkeeper after completing the run-up to the ball, the taker will be punished with a yellow card, and will not be allowed to retake the kick.
Even if the goalkeeper succeeds in blocking the shot, the ball may rebound back to the penalty taker or one of his teammates for another shot, with the goalkeeper often in a poor position to make a second save.
This makes saving penalty kicks more difficult. This is not a concern in penalty shoot-outs , where only a single shot is permitted. Missed penalty kicks, however, are not uncommon: During his career, Italian striker Roberto Baggio had two occurrences where his shot hit the upper bar, bounced downwards, rebounded off the keeper and passed the goal line for a goal.
The early origin of the penalty kick probably lies in rugby football , as shown in early match reports, for example in The Irish Football Association presented the idea to the International Football Association Board and finally after much debate, the board approved the idea on 2 June Influencing factors were for the Scottish Football Association on 20 December in the Scottish Cup quarter-final between East Stirlingshire and Heart of Midlothian when Jimmy Adams  fisted the ball out from under the bar.
The world's first penalty kick was awarded to Airdrieonians in at Broomfield Park. The penalty was taken and scored by "Billy" Heath  as Wolves went on to win the game 5—0. Germany won this shoot-out, leaving Germany alone with a 4—0 record in World Cup finals. Thirty-two penalties had to be taken before the tie was broken. The Netherlands eventually won 13— In the FA Cup , penalty kicks were used in the edition of the short-lived third-place playoff. They were introduced more generally in the —92 season to decide matches still level after one replay and extra time.
Previously there was no limit on the number of replays, which led to fixture disruption, especially disliked by the top clubs. Replays were often two or three days after the drawn match, which conflicted with the increased planning required after the Football Spectators Act The first team eliminated from the FA Cup on penalties was Scunthorpe United , beaten on 26 October by Rotherham United after a first-round replay.
Shoot-outs have been used to settle four Football League Cup finals to date. The first was in when Liverpool beat Birmingham City 5—4 on penalties after a 1—1 draw after extra time in the match. More recently the final between Manchester United and Tottenham Hotspur ended goalless and was won 4—1 on penalties by Manchester United.
Then the final between Liverpool and Cardiff City finished 2—2 after extra time, Liverpool winning 3—2 on penalties. The final was won by Manchester City beating Liverpool 3—1 on penalties, after a 1—1 draw. Penalty shoot-outs have been used for many years to settle drawn games in the earlier rounds of the Football League Cup , the earliest example being August when Doncaster Rovers beat Lincoln City 3—2 on penalties after three drawn games in a row 1—1, 1—1, 2—2 in a first round match.
Shoot-outs tend to be quite rare in the semi-finals due to the away goal rule applying after extra time. However, a shoot-out was used in the —14 semi-final between Sunderland and Manchester United after both teams finished level over two legs; Sunderland won the shoot-out 2—1.
The Community Shield is also settled using penalties, following the normal 90 minutes of play, but no extra time. Manchester United have won the shield three times via a shoot-out, beating Arsenal in , Chelsea in , and Portsmouth in Manchester United lost the match on penalties to Chelsea. After a scoreless minutes, 28 penalty kicks were needed to decide the outcome, and Kayserispor, thanks to the goal scoring and goal saving heroics of Dimitar Ivankov, won its first Turkish Cup 11— While Olympiacos took a 4—3 lead in overtime with a goal by Galletti, the scorer was sent off with a second yellow card for taking his shirt off while celebrating.
Later on, Avraam Papadopoulos also got a second yellow leaving Olympiacos with 9 players. AEK managed to tie the game at 4—4 forcing a penalty shoot out. AEK was shooting first. Both AEK and Olympiacos scored in the first 4 penalties. Majstorovic of AEK hit the horizontal crossbar in the 5th penalty giving the chance to Djordjevic for whom it was the closing game of his career to seal the victory for Olympiacos.
Hence, the shooting continued. Both teams scored their 6th and 7th penalties. Center-back Antzas was slotted to hit the 8th penalty for Olympiacos, but keeper Nikopolidis took the initiative and took the penalty instead tying the score to 7—7. Nikopolidis blocked the subsequent 9th penalty by Georgeas for AEK but Antzas missed the penalty for Olympiacos saved by Saha and failed to finish the shoot-out.
Since Olympiacos had only 9 players in the field, the shooters had to rotate, going back to those that shoot the very first penalties. All 7 subsequent penalty takers for both teams scored, leading to a penalty shoot out that was at 14—14 with 32! However, Pelletieri of AEK had a bad penalty shot that was easily deflected by Nikopolidis, who then took the 34th penalty shot against the other goalkeeper, Saha, scoring, and ending this saga with a 15—14 win for Olympiacos in penalty shoot out and an overall score of 19— The match is best known for the antics of Liverpool keeper Bruce Grobbelaar.
As Roma's Bruno Conti prepared to take his kick, Grobbelaar walked towards the goal smiling confidently at the cameras lined-up behind, then proceeded to bite the back of the net, in imitation of eating spaghetti. Conti sent his spot kick over the bar.
Grobbelaar then produced a similar performance before Francesco Graziani took his kick, famously wobbling his legs in mock terror. Graziani duly missed and Liverpool went on to win the shootout 4—2. In the UEFA Champions League Final the penalty-shoot out has caused controversy among many fans as replays showed that Dida was off his goal line when saving penalties from Trezeguet , Zalayeta and Montero.
Buffon was also off his goal line when saving penalties from Seedorf and Kaladze. Milan and Liverpool F. His standing leg slipped as he took his kick, and the ball hit the post. Chelsea lost the shoot-out 6—5, to which Terry reacted by breaking down in tears. Terry was not originally the penalty taker, however, striker Didier Drogba had been sent off shortly before extra time ended. Chelsea had never previously won a shoot-out in the competition, and had lost the final and semi-final on penalties.
Bayern had never lost a shoot-out in Europe; their wins included the final against Valencia and the semi-final against Real Madrid. Didier Drogba dispatched the winning penalty, having been unable to take the fifth kick missed by Terry in the final due to a red card in extra time.
The following day, many British newspapers made reference to the fact that an English team had finally beaten a German team on penalties. The current World Record for the most penalties scored consecutively in a shoot out stands at 29, in a Hampshire Senior Cup second-round game between Brockenhurst and Andover Town on 9 October , in which the 30th penalty was saved allowing Brockenhurst to win 15— After the second set of five penalty kicks still being tied at 10—10, it went to sudden death, where the last penalty was missed by Anthony Baffoe , the stand in Ghanaian captain.
This is the most penalties in the final match of a major international tournament, and the last time a second set of 5 kicks was implemented in the rules.
Fourteen years later, the Ivory Coast and Cameroon needed 24 penalties to decide who would advance to the semi-finals of the African Cup of Nations. The Ivory Coast advanced by winning 12—11 after Samuel Eto'o missed his second attempt, as his was the only miss of the penalty shootout. On the 11 December , Bradford City set the record for most consecutive penalty shootout wins.
They have won 9 penalty shootouts since and that has included wins against Arsenal and local rivals Huddersfield Town. A shoot-out is usually considered for statistical purposes to be separate from the match which preceded it. This contrasts with a fixture won in extra time, where the score at the end of normal time is superseded. Converted shoot-out penalties are not considered as goals scored by a player for the purposes of their individual records, or for " golden boot " competitions.
With the exception of the national championship game, if the score of any game remains tied following the sudden death overtime or golden goal , the game is recorded as a tie, regardless of the result of the shoot-out tiebreaker. In a national championship game, the result of the shoot-out tiebreaker also determines the result of the game for statistical purposes. In the calculation of UEFA coefficients , shoot-outs are ignored for club coefficients,  but not national team coefficients, where the shoot-out winner gets 20, points: As a way to decide a football match, shoot-outs have been seen variously as a thrilling climax or as an unsatisfactory cop-out.
Paul Doyle describes shoot-outs as "exciting and suspense-filled" and the UEFA Champions League Final shoot-out as "the perfect way to end a wonderful The result is often seen as a lottery rather than a test of skill;  managers Luiz Felipe Scolari  and Roberto Donadoni  described them as such after their teams had respectively won and lost shoot-outs.
Mitch Phillips called it "the ultimate test of nerve and technique". Only a small subset of a footballer's skills is tested by a shoot-out. Ian Thomsen likened deciding the World Cup using a penalty shoot-out to deciding the Masters golf tournament via a minigolf game. Inferior teams are tempted to play for a scoreless draw, calculating that a shoot-out offers their best hope of victory. The Economist reported on the advantage of the team kicking first usually wins and on the players aiming higher usually score a goal.
As part of a trial to reduce this advantage, the IFAB sanctioned in March to test a different sequence of taking penalties, known as "ABBA", that mirrors the serving sequence in a tennis tiebreak team A kicks first, team B kicks second: The penalty shoot-out in the Women's Under Championship semi-final between Germany and Norway was the first ever to implement this new system.
Historically, one of the first tie-breaking procedures was contained in the Sheffield Rules between and , with the concept of the rouge , scorable when the ball went narrowly wide off the goal. Should no goals or an equal number be obtained, the match is decided by rouges".
Similarly, the try in rugby football was used from as a tie-breaker if teams were level on goals. A drawn result may be allowed to stand, unless the fixture determines which team qualifies for a later round. Before except in the FA Charity Shield was shared if the match was drawn. When the third place playoff of the Olympic tournament between the USSR and East Germany ended 2—2 after extra time,  the bronze medal was shared by the two teams.
During the qualification process for the World Cup , Morocco and Tunisia formed a two-team group. They both won 2—1 at home, so they played a third match at a neutral location. When this ended in a 1—1 draw after extra time, Morocco advanced on a coin toss to the next round of qualification. This scenario was repeated in during the qualification process for the World Cup , when the same two teams were tied after three matches and extra time.
Again, Morocco advanced on a coin toss. Tunisia did have better luck with the coin toss in the intervening years; during the African Cup of Nations , they reached the final at the expense of Senegal by winning a coin toss after three group matches had left Tunisia and Senegal tied with a win over Ethiopia and a draw against each other.
Current alternatives include replaying a match that has ended in a draw. This still occurs in the fifth last sixteen round and earlier rounds of the English FA Cup. Until , any number of replays were permitted, with a record of five. Only once, in , did the European Cup final go to a replay.
Other suggestions have included using elements of match play such as most shots on goal, most corner kicks awarded, fewest cautions and sendings-off , or having ongoing extra time with teams compelled to remove players at progressive intervals similar to regular season play in the National Hockey League , where players play 3-on-3 in the extra time.
However, after the World Cup, Sepp Blatter stated that he wants no more penalty shoot-outs in the Final of the World Cup, tentatively suggesting either a replay or "Maybe to take players away and play golden goal ". Henry Birtles' "Advantage" proposal is for the shoot-out to be held before extra-time, and only acting as a tiebreak if the game remains a draw after the full minutes.
Another advantage is that players who have missed would have a chance to redeem themselves in extra-time.
The obvious flaw is that the team that wins the penalty shoot-out would be inclined to play defensively in extra time in the knowledge that a draw would put them through. However, this flaw is not so clear because a single goal makes the difference between winning and losing, as opposed to a team which defends a single-goal lead more comfortably because a conceded goal is the difference between winning and drawing.
Another alternative is Attacker Defender Goalkeeper ADG , which features a series of ten contests, in which an attacker has thirty seconds to score a goal against a defender and goalkeeper.
At the completion of the ten contests, the team with the most goals is the winner. The player could make as many moves as he could in a breakaway situation in the five seconds, then attempt a shot. This procedure is similar to that used in an ice hockey penalty shot.
As with a standard shoot-out, this variation used a best-of-five-kicks model, and if the score was still level, the tiebreaker would head to an extra round of one attempt per team. This format rewarded player skills, as players were able to attempt to deceive goalkeepers and play the ball in an attempt to make the shot, as in a one-on-one skills contest, and goalkeepers could take on the attackers without restrictions that are normally implemented in penalty shootouts.
From its inception in , the NASL used an unconventional point system in determining the league standings. Teams were awarded six points for a win and three points for a draw. In addition, teams earned one bonus point for each goal scored in a game up to a maximum of three per game. Thus, a team that lost 5—3 would earn three points.
However, a team that lost 1—0 would earn no points. Also, a team that won 5—4 would earn nine points the same as a 3—0 win.
But a team that won 2—0 would earn only eight points. In the league's second season , the Kansas City Spurs were the league champions with 10 wins, 2 losses and 4 ties even though the Atlanta Chiefs had 11 wins, 2 losses and 3 ties, because Kansas City earned more bonus points. Starting with postseason playoff matches, the NASL used a golden goal rule, and every match had a winner decided from the run of play.
Extra-time sessions were 15 minutes long before a brief break and change of ends. Game 1 of the NASL semifinal series between the Rochester Lancers and the Dallas Tornado went six extra-time periods with Rochester scoring the game-winning goal in the th minute.
Game 3 of that same series went four extra time periods with Dallas scoring in the th minute to win the match and the series. In , the NASL adopted a conventional penalty-kick shootout system for all regular-season and postseason playoff matches, and there were no longer any NASL matches that ended in ties.